Cancer Vacations

Cancer Vaccinations









Cervical Cancer



Rs: 3995

Rs: 4700

0,1,6 Mo

9-45 yrs old females

Pakistan Drug Manual 2019

Liver Cancer (Hepatitis B)

ENGERIX-B 10 mcg


Rs: 190

Rs: 223

0,1,2 Mo

<10 yrs

Pakistan Drug Manual 2019



Rs: 314

Rs: 369

0,1,6 Mo

10 yrs and above

Pakistan Drug Manual 2019


Cervical cancer:

What is cervix?

Cervix is lower part of uterus (womb). It is a narrow canal shaped, made up of strong muscles. Cervix lies in lower part of female body with urinary bladder in front of it and rectum behind.

Cervix provides passage for menstrual blood to flow out of uterus (womb) into vagina. It allows sperm to enter from vagina to uterus and Fallopian tubes. It is the main canal the fetus has to travel before take birth.

What is Cervical Cancer?

When there is uncontrolled proliferation of cells of cervix called cervical Cancer. At initial stages of cervical cancer victim may not feel any sign or symptom but with advancement of disease person may experience spotting, bleeding, pain in lower body, passage of clots, urinary difficulties, difficulty in passing stool or uncontrolled urination/ defecation etc.

Who is at Risk of Cervical Cancer?

Risk means a person is having increased chances of developing a particular disease/cancer. The etiology (cause of cancer) ismulti factorial (i.e many factors contribute). Few are:

Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection: this is most important risk factor for cervical cancer. Infection with HPV is common. Many people get infected with HPV when they become sexually active. Infection with HPV may arrest and eradicated by body immune system, but sometimes it may not. It is said that HPV remain in body in dormant (sleepy) form for many years (up to >20 years). There are +100 strains (types) of HPV. Good news is that not all types are associated with cancer. HPV16 & HPV 18 are more frequently associated with cervical cancer .
When a person starts sex at early age (<18 years) or having multiple sexual partners, that person is having high probability of getting infected with high risk strains of HPV ( i.e. HPV 16, 18)

Immune System Deficiency: Women with deficient (lower) immune system having high risk of developing cervical cancer. Lower immune system could be due to prolong use of steroid, in organ transplanted persons, in persons received treatment of some other cancer in near past or due to HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). Whatever the reason of immune system deficiency, an immunodeficient individual would not be able to fight with HPV infection (which is very common) and may have Cervical cancer.

Sexually Transmittable Diseases: women having sexually transmittable diseases (STDs) or having a sexual partner suffering with STD  having high risk of developing cervical cancer.

Smoking: smoker women are at double risk of developing cervical cancer.

Lower Socioeconomical status: Cervical cancer is more seen in women belongs to poor socioeconomical status. One reason behind this is probably this group of women has less access to health care providers and screening systems. Another reason is early start of sexual activity and multiple sexual partners.

Oral Contraceptive Use: oral contraceptive ( birth control pills) may be associated with cervical cancer development suggested by some research studies, but actual phenomenon is not well understood. More studies are required.

Diet: diet deficient in fruits and vegetables is not balanced; it leads to deficient immune system and increased risk of cervical cancer.

Is Cervical Cancer Preventable?

Of course yes! Prevention of risk factors help prevention of cervical cancer. This is called passive prevention. Good news is that for such a morbid disease Active prevention by vaccination is also established now. Cervarix is the vaccine available for this purpose (US approved 2009)

Who Should Get Vaccination for Cervical Cancer?

  • Girls aged 9 years or more
  • All brides to be
  • Women having >1 sexual partner
  • Women married to person having multiple sexual partners